This project goes over the build of a Solar Power Grid Down Backup System to generate your own alternative power.A great way to utilize renewable energy as a backup source of power.
Whatever may be the reason , may be to offset electricity bills or for self reliance to provide when the grid goes down, a solar backup system is simply a great way to provide alternative power to maintain a lifestyle of reasonable convenience.
If the grid should go down, I can have a freezer, power lighting, pump water, maintain communications, use tools, and charge every little device I have from flashlights to kindles.
This Off grid Solar Power System is composed of 5 components. Solar panels to generate the power, a charge controller to charge the batteries, the batteries to store the energy, the inverter to provide AC to the household items you wish to power.
Also you need a Kilowatt meter. The kilowatt meter measures two things you have to know how much energy your devices draw at any given moment, and how much power they consume over time.
Here we use 100 watt monocrystalline panels, a 40 amp MPPT charge controller, a 1000 watt pure sine wave inverter and to store the energy, 446 volt golf cart batteries totaling 470 amp hours.
First you need to size your system by figuring out how many devices you are going to want to run at the same time. This will determine the size of your inverter, the inverters function is to take DC power from the batteries and converted to AC power for use with household appliances. If I have 1000 watt inverter, this means I can run up to 1000 watts worth of devices at the same time.
Once you have evaluated every device that you feel that you are going to need, should the grid go down, you are gonna have a good idea of how much power you need to generate each day.
The battery bank consists of four, six volt, Duracell SLIGC 125, golf cart batteries connected in series. Golf cart batteries are designed to deliver a lower amount of power over a longer period of time and then recharge quickly.
When picking a spot to locate your panels, you have to consider that the sun will be lower towards the horizon in the winter, and closer to directly overhead in the summer. Building a system that actually tracks the sun would be best as the panels are always pointed directly at the sun.
Also mount your panels as close as possible to the batteries. This is because the longer your wire run, the more energy is wasted due to resistance. You also need to select the proper gauge wire to transmit the power from the solar panels to the batteries.
Between the panels and the batteries is the charge controller ,it controls the charge of the batteries and make sure that the batteries get the proper voltage that they need and that they don’t get overcharged.
Here we use an MPPT Solar Charge controller. If your solar panels are wired in series and connected to an MPPT charge controller, the voltage adds up ,thus giving us enough voltage to charge the batteries. An MPPT charge controller can charge your batteries nearly the entire time The sun is out. If your panels are far away and you want to save money and wiring, then the MPPT charge controller is way more efficient than PWM.
The first step in making your solar system safe is making sure that there’s an automatic and a manual way to disconnect power in each segment of the system. Starting right here at the battery box we have a 300 amp manual switch to kill the power from the batteries to the inverter as well as a 200 amp fuse that will blow automatically.
Another component to the safety is the grounding. Grounding your system is quite easy to do. So get an eight foot grounding rod and drive it into the ground. Then pick up some copper grounding wire, some lugs and connect the frames have all the panels in any metal components in the system including the charge controller and the inverter.
- How to build a Simple Backyard Bio Sand Water Filtration System from easily available materials .This project goes over the build of an emergency cheap bio sand water filtration system. This can filter out your polluted water from your stream or lake or gutter. Bio sand filters are good for filtering parasites, bacteria, protozoa virus and fine sediments from well water. These work by doing four stages of purification. First is the biological zone where bacteria eats your parasites and pathogens viruses. That happens on the surface of the bio zone. The second is mechanical trapping where sediment can be attracted to porous rock, and it will filter out sediment absorption, third one is absorption where the electrostatic charge which will attract small particles and viruses down to virus level and get attracted to this sand and last stage is natural death from nutrient depletion when there won't be anything for bacteria or virus to eat or thrive on when they start to go through the sand dairy of the filter. There is two five gallon buckets, one stacked on top of the other. These are black food storage buckets. These buckets don't tend to promote the growth of algae as much as the opaque buckets do. The top bucket is the water storage bucket, the top one is the filter. There is an eighth inch hole on the lid at the top bucket that allows water to flow freely without creating a vacuum. There is a 16th of an inch hole at the bottom of the bucket that slowly let the water drip out onto the top of the next bucket. The bottom bucket has 8 one quarter inch holes along the sides. This allows the water to disperse over the top ,they drip down to the these holes along the side of the bucket such that they dont disturb the biozone underneath. It'll take about three weeks to establish a bio zone. And during that three week period, you're going to have to continually feed some polluted water in there with bacteria in it to feed the bio zone to make it develop and grow. It would put a large circular ring in the center of your bio filter and distribute the bacteria off to the side. Now this filter relies upon bacteria that forms on the top of the sand to eat the other bacteria like Giardia and Cryptosporidium. A pipe at the center will prevent the sand from coming up into the faucet and getting into the drinking water. We here have two layers of sand. The bio zone is going to have a couple inches of fine sand on it to promote the growth of the bacteria. The course sand underneath will filter out sediment and other bacteria. Bottom layer is an inch of fine and pea gravel. The second stage of this filter starts with the build of a 4 way distribution pipe made of PVC pipes and a four way coupler. We cut holes in these pipe ,one towards the end and the other towards the center. This will distribute the water over the top of the bucket and so that the water isn't just going in in one spot and trickling down one side or down the center and not evenly distributing it over the top of the sand Drill a hole at the bottom of the 2nd bucket and put a quarter inch brass drain plug .This can be used to drain water out the barrels if I want to store them or to flush them out. We put put 3 levels of gravel and 3 levels of sand in the second stage. Put two to three inches of each layer of gravel. Add an inch of activated carbon on top of this fine gravel. Treat both the filter with chlorinated water and fresh water and let it sit for few minutes. Stack the second stage filter on top of the first stage. Make sure the whole setup is tightly sealed. Further purify the water by letting it sit under the sun. The ultraviolet ray purify the remaining bacteria that might be in there. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6bqYI1Z68jM
- How to build a Homemade Chainsaw Mill from Scratch. Step by step Build InstructionsThis project goes over the build of a simple and basic DIY chainsaw mill from start to finish. This chainsaw mill is portable and doesn't require very large space . This is a very inexpensive way of producing lumber from logs and can be made from easily available materials from your local hardware store. The materials you need to build this chainsaw mill are one by one square tubing, half inch square tubing, quarter inch flat bar, weld nuts, bandsaw and welding unit. The welder used here is Millermatic 212 auto set mig welder and the saw is Homelite 1130g The dimensions of the saw are as follows. A 12 inch deck to slide across the log that acts as a milling surface. The max width of the mill is 26 inch. An 8 inch metal to grab the bandsaw on both the sides. A quarter inch flat stocks for the holding the saw. We start by cutting 26 inch pieces for the sides and 12 inch pieces for the sides. Assemble them into a rectangle and weld it using a MiG welder. Do Check if the corners to make sure it is square and the sides are even. A center bar welded into the rectangular guide plate, just to give it a little bit more support and make it so that it doesn't twist. Two guide posts are welded onto the sides. 2 larger pipe sections of dimension one by one is cut .This will slide within the guide posts. This is done so as to make the saw adjustable to how thick it cuts a slab .The side posts also gives you adjustability on the deck to move up and down. 4 quarter inch flat bars of length nine inches are cut . Two of them are bolted onto bottom section of the rails that slides up and down on the guide posts . The saw blade is placed securely between these bars. A small spacer block is welded onto the bars so that it doesn't touch the saw blade. Three eighth inch weld nuts are welded onto the side posts . Tightening with the bolts locks the adjustable rails in place. A crossbar is welded onto the guide posts .These help push the bar along when you are operating the mill and it is a nice place to put your hand , It feels like you are farther away from the chain. The chain saw blade is inserted between the flat brackets at the bottom and it is locked tight in place between the spacers using 3/8th inch bolts. For the first cut, we attach a flat plate at the top of the log so that the bar has something to ride. The height of the cut is adjusted with the help of the side rails on the mill . The saw is then started and placed on top of the flat plate to begin cutting the log. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DA-HknSaBvI
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