Practical Survivalist

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    This project goes over the build of an DIY Atmospheric Water Generator that distills water from air. This unit is made of aluminum and copper components so it is water safe and is drinkable. The water essentially is just pure distilled water just as clean as if it is distilled from a stovetop distiller. This setup works well in hot humid weather. Also acts a dehumidifier.

    The materials you need to build this project are quarter inch copper tubing, soup can, half inch PVC pipe, 12V DC aquarium pump, aluminum foil, clear vinyl tubing, aluminum tray for collecting the distilled water ,small styrofoam cooler box. Cold Water is pumped through two sets of coiled copper tubes. The coil becomes freezing cold and starts to condensate . Dew gets collected on the coil and is captured by a drip pan which is placed under the coil.

    The copper tubes are wrapped around a soup can to get the coiled shape. The clear PVC hose tube is clamped onto the coil and then connected to a small 12V DC aquarium water pump which is powered by a battery or solar panel.

    We take two half inch PVC pipes , connect them together with two elbows . Wrap the PVC pipes with some aluminum foil and place the pipes above an aluminum or glass tray.

    The water pump is then submerged in a chest box or bucket containing ice cold water. The pump is started and water coming out of the box cooler is sent through the copper coil where it will start the condensation process. Here the water is chilled to below its dew point. If the water is warm, it wont cool the copper coil enough for the condensation to occur.

    The colder the water and the more humid it is out , the faster the process of collecting distilled water. To improve the efficiency , you could squeeze the copper coils together . The more the coils, the more the water you can extract from air .

      This project goes into the build of a DIY solar powered pressurized roof top water heater and shower that is portable for outdoor survival and camping trips. This project is easy to make and requires only minimal tools and plumbing parts.

      The dimension of the pipe used for this build is six feet tall and four inch wide. This has a capacity of 15 liters. The materials you need to build this project are six feet long four inch ABS pipe, air compressor, two four inch PVC end caps, abs cement, rubber schrader valve, shutdown valve and retainer nut, radiator valve drain plug , forstner bit,two inch threaded end cap, high heat flat black paint, steel wool scrubber, methyl hydrate.

      The shutoff valve is installed as low as possible in the pipe to avoid the necessity of having to tilt the system. Mark the position for the valve keeping the retainer nut in place , we insert a forstner bit into the nut creating a center mark for the drill .Once the hole is drilled ,we thread the shut off valve into place and attach the retaining nut.

      For installing air compressor for pressurizing the tank ,we use an long schrader valve that is used for aluminum rim tyres. This valve uses threaded nuts to secure it in place .

      Next step is to install the water intake opening. For this we use a two inch PVC threaded adapter socket . We take the diameter of the fitting and then drill out the opening and glue the fitting in place using ABS solvent cement.

      A radiator valve drain plug is installed on the threaded end cap of the water intake PVC fitting .This valve helps to release extra pressure from the tank without opening the main drain shut off.

      In order to improve thermal absorption of solar energy, the surface of the ABS pipe is painted with flat black paint. The surface is polished with steel wool soaked in methyl hydrate and applied one coat of spray primer followed by two coats of high heat restoleum black paint.

      To mount the shower to roof of the car or truck , we use a canoe foam block . We extend the slots in the foam block to make them fit inside the cross rails . An arc is cut on the foam block equal to the outside diameter of the pipe and positioned it such that it left half an inch of foam between the mounting slot and the bottom of the arc. To attach the shower to the support pads, here we use one inch nylon tie down straps. With both these pads in place, the water heater is securely attached to the roof.

      An inexpensive 25 foot long coiled three eighths inch hose from the local garden center is used as the shower hose. This would be perfect as it is easily stored and can be taken apart after use. The air compressor is connected to the pipe with the help of a multifunction spray nozzle .

      Thee bursting point of six inch ABS pipe is well over 100 psi .So a 30 psi would provide safe and ample pressurized shower without any long term expansion fatigue to the pipe or glue connections .

        This project goes over the build of an simple and efficient copper coil tiny alcohol burner jet stove. The materials you need to make this stove are canning jar, small copper tubing, JB weld to seal up the from inside and outside , pipe to wrap the coil, couple of drill bits, a wick material, sand and Isopropyl Rubbing Alcohol as a the fuel.

        Fill the copper tubing with sand all the way up. Seal both ends of the tube with a cloth or a cap. With the help of a vice ,we bend the tubing around the pipe into a loop. Flatten the sides of the coil keeping the sides together.

        Empty the sand out of the copper coil and run water through it to get everything out. This is done so that the inside is completely open for the air and the gas to build up and burn in there.

        Cut a vent hole down the center of the looped coil using the smallest drill bit. Mark the canning glass jar against the copper coil so that we can cut off the extra coil legs so that the coil fits inside the jar approximately three quarters way down.

        Next step is to make holes for the lid of the jar . Place the coil on top of the lid and make two spots for the holes. We use a drill bit ,same size as the coil to drill two holes.

        The coil is placed through the two holes of the lid and sealed on both the top and bottom side using JB Weld. Allow the glue to set for an hour.

        Take your wick cloth material ,insert and twist them through both the holes of the coil all the way up to the top.

        Pour some Isopropyl Rubbing Alcohol onto the jar , place the lid with the coil on the top and tightly close the jar with the cap. Wipe the sides of the coil with rubbing alcohol.

        To prime the stove for its first burn , start by heating the coil using a propane torch first. The heating of the coil gets the gas going. Heat until the flame starts to appear. Burn for four to five minutes to steady the flame.

          This project goes over the build of a Geothermal heat pump that takes the hot air in your garage and cool it down by transferring that heat into water .The cold water is pulled out of the ground through a shallow hand dug well and send to a heat exchanger inside the garage . A fan attached to the heat exchanger blows out the cold air into the garage . The heat exchanger absorbs the existing heat inside the garage . The warmed up water is then removed through an exhaust pipe.

          Just a few feet down the earth is a consistent 55 degrees, summer or winter. Water at that depth is about the same temperature. To harness the cold water down below, we dig a shallow well. To do this we use a post auger and a 3 foot long well point that is attached to a 10 foot three quarter inch pipe using a drive coupling. We start by digging a hole using the post auger till the water table is reached and then start driving using the well point for additional two to three feet until it is submerged under the water table.

          A two to three foot trench is dug from where the well is installed to the garage . A One inch poly pipe is connected to the well pipe using a barbed coupling and is buried inside the two foot trench all the way to a well jet pump .The trench is dug down at least two feet until you hit some hard pan clay that is about where the temperatures begins being more constant. This keeps the pipe cool under the earth.

          The other end of the poly pipe coming out from the trench is connected a 1/2 HP Flotec Shallow well jet pump . The pump can be powered by a solar panel. The pump is kept outside the garage as it generates a lot of heat. If it is kept inside the garage, cooling effect from the water will be undone by the heat generated by the pump.

          The output of the pump is connected to a three quarter inch copper pipe inside the garage. It is then further connected to a water pressure tank with the help of a brass tee and a union. A relief valve is also attached to the tee to empty the water tank if the pressure gets too high. A water pressure tank is used prevent the pump from failure .It also acts as a buffer storage.

          The other end of the brass tee is connected to two pipes. One pipe goes outside the garage to a faucet and the other pipe is connected to a radiator that acts as a finned tube heat exchanger.

          The heat exchanger captures the hot air surrounding the garage and stores the heat into the finned coils within the radiator .The heat is transferred to the water flowing through them . An exhaust line from the radiator carries this hot water to outside the garage.

          Two flexible hose pipes connects the input of the heat exchanger to the water tank and output to an exhaust pipe. A box fan is placed in the front of the radiator to blow the cool air . The fan can be powered by Solar panels. Once the water starts running through the radiator , we start the fan

            This project goes over the build of a cross flow wood gasifier that powers a generator or a car or any kind of internal combustion engine using nothing more than wood scraps, paper, coal or any other organic materials. This unit was built in nothing more than an angle grinder, and a hand drill and parts that you can find lying around.

            These devices are taking advantage of a process called gasification, in which you can take any kind of organic biomass, really anything natural that burns and by heating it up, you are able to break it down through a process called pyrolysis to its basic elements. This creates a gas called syngas or wood gas. Here we are burning biomass in an oxygen deprived environment. And that heat which is sustained through just enough oxygen to not spread to ignite the gases produced by the heat interacting with the surrounding material is the process that we are using to create wood gas.

            The gases coming out contains things like water vapor from moisture content in the wood, also creates tar and creosote .So we need to filter out the gas. And the main concern of getting that gas to be clean enough to run an engine is by cooling it down. We connect the unfiltered gas coming from the pressure pot into a radiator to cool it down and then further connected to a bucket filled with saw dust to filter .

            The reactor unit is made of an old 5 gallon painting pressure pot . The first step is to burn it out removing old residue and paint. Also burn out the inside container as well.

            Make sure everything on the lid of the pressure pot is removed and sealed off with a plug or bolt. Remove the rubber gasket on the backside of the lid. The holes on surface of the lid are covered with three eighth inch bolts.

            At the bottom of the pot , we attach two pipes for the the air intake and the syn gas suction output. These pipes are held tightly to the pot with the help of one and quarter inch pipe flanges.

            The air comes up from the bottom, the gasification happens in the middle of this reactor and the ash gets sifted to the bottom through a passive shaker grate. The output pipe is capped at the top to prevent the residue ash going out and small holes are drilled along the pipe to allow the wood gas to pass through.

            Next step is to build the grate insert where the fuel will actually sit on and burn on. The grate will sit about two and a half inches off the bottom of the pot. The grate is made from the other stainless steel container that came with the pressure spray painting pot.

            Grid of holes are drilled along the surface of the grate using a quarter inch drill bit. The grate is finally is inserted into the reactor pot chamber .

            The gasket on the back of the lid of the pot is removed and replaced with fiberglass rope that can withstand temperature up to 2000 degree Fahrenheit. The rope is secured in place using a gasketing cement and stove sealer. The lid is clamped in place until the gasket cement is dry.

            The next step is to build the cooling and the filtering system. To get all the tar and steam to condense back into their liquid form , we use a old oil heater radiator that act as a condensate catcher . The gas coming out of the reactor is connected to the radiator which gets most of the heat out of them.

            We build the filtration system using a 5 gallon metal bucket to get the gas as clean as possible. The output pipe is attached to the bottom of the bucket using a flange. The bucket is filled with a filter medium such as wood shavings or sawdust that will trap any sort of particulates and get more tar out of the gas.

            An old car blower from a toyota is attached to the top of this bucket to get that gas up to the point where it can burn. The blower motor is supported with a old 10 tin can that is then secured at the center of top of the bucket .Another soup can is soldered to the 10 can on the side to attach the output hose pipe.

            We don’t want there to be enough oxygen to actually just burn all the material in there before we can extract the gases . So we are limiting this by using a one way gate valve . The one way valve is important to prevent flashbacks if too much oxygen is there inside the reactor .

            We load the reactor with wood sticks and put some starter down in there, which is just some cloth, some paper and a sprinkle some wood pellets on top just to give us something small to start off with. We pack the reactor leaving a spot in the center . The fans is turned on and we start the ignition process.

              Solar heat collectors are a good supplemental heating source that can provide homeowners with free heat for their home when the sun is shining. Solar collectors are a box like structure that capture the energy from the sun and convert it into usable energy for heating purposes. Inside the collector solar energy is simply converted into usable thermal energy.

              On the front side of the solar collectors . a clear panel or glazing material typically polycarbonate sheeting, single pane glass ,double pane glass face towards the sun and allow the sunlight into the collector box. On the inside of the collector box is a heat exchanger or a absorber. The heat exchanger or absorber is responsible for transferring the heat of the sun into a usable thermal heat source. The heat exchanger is suspended or attached inside the collector box and should be coated flat black with a high heat temperature resistant paint.

              The flat black paint helps to absorb the heat energy from the sun. It is very important to utilize a flat finish black paint inside the collector box. If the paint has a reflective coating, it will reflect the sun back outside of the collector, which results in lost potential energy. It assists with the entrapment of that heat energy rather than reflecting it away from the collector.

              Once the sunlight has penetrated the collector box through the glazing, the heat exchanger material and the flat black paint will absorb that heat and begin to warm the air inside the collector. As the air inside the collector and around the absorber warms, it will expand and rise. The expansion of warm air will naturally create a convection current. As the air inside the collector rises, it will continue to pick up heat through friction with the absorber. The air passing over and through the absorber is given more opportunity to gain heat by rubbing against that surface which is being heated by the sun.

              Now that the air is warm and picking up heat and needs a way to move through the collector box, we install two vents on the backside of the solar collector facing towards the room or space that we want to heat. Through the vent at the top of the collector, the heated air moves into the home , the vent at the bottom allows the cooler air to return back to the the collector.

              Having a return event at the bottom and a supplier event at the top of the solar collector allows natural convection process. The air inside the collector is picking up heat from the absorber and is naturally wanting to rise up and out of the collector. A natural force of air rising will induce a convection current, which will pull cooler return air from the room or condition space into the bottom of the collector box.

              The collector creates a convection current inside the room .It removes cooler dense air from the bottom of the room and takes it through the collector where it is warm, and then exhausts the heated air out of the supply duct back into the room.

              This project goes over the build of an entirely self contained Solar Air Heater using no grid power whatsoever. The unit draws the cold air from the room and exhausts hot air into the room using a 2 5V DC brushless 7 vane case fans. This fans are powered by a 16 Watt Amorphous solar panel. Both the intake and exhaust pipes ore of 5 inch diameter.

              9 rows of 17 soda pop cans , a total of 153 355ml soda cans are used for the collector. The aluminum pop cans are painted with a flat black paint to ensure all sunlight is absorbed and not reflected. Also there is a five inch intake and exhaust manifold at the bottom and top of the unit. This ensures that all air travels through the interior of the aluminum cans.

              To maximize the heat transfer from the sun to air within a given space, we need to build a better heat exchanger. Solar air heating systems use air as the working fluid for absorbing and transferring solar energy. Transferring heat from one place to another by definition is a heat exchanger. When the sun heats the metal, the hot metal heats the air circulating over the metal of the heat exchanger. The job is to capture radiation from the sun and transfer this thermal energy to air via conduction heat transfer. Heat transfer output depends on the rise in temperature and the airflow.

              In order to minimize heat loss through the plexiglass , we keep the absorber temperature as low as usually possible. The cooler the absorber runs, the less heat will be lost out of the glass. A way to keep the absorber cooler while extracting the same amount of energy from the sun is to increase the airflow.

              To improve conduction heat transfer without significantly reducing airflow , we disturb the airflow within the solar air tubes . Four holes are put in some of the soda cans to create a baffle that increase the turbulence .These baffle cans are placed evenly across the tubes to distribute the airflow. We place the first baffle cans on the second row from the bottom with the intention of disturbing the airflow early. The second baffle will be located in the 10th can .

              In order to stack the empty cans, we make an assembly tray “V” shaped support structure using leftover baseboard. The cans are glued together using PL Premium construction adhesive that is water resistant, non shrinking and paintable. The soda cans are positioned on the loading tray and slowly rotated to evenly distribute the construction adhesive.
              The “V” channel made from baseboards holds the cans perfectly straight.

              The box for the Solar air heater is made of 5052 aluminum alloy sheets. The dimension of the box are 91 inches tall and 24 inches wide. We use a one inch flange and a metal bending brake to bend the aluminum to make the sides of the box. The top and bottom caps are bend to fit on the top and bottom of the box . When manufacturing the bottom caps, the distance between the bends is decreased by one millimeter to allow the caps to fit inside the solar air box to facilitate drainage.

              Next step is securing the aluminum box top and bottom .The procedure involves using a smaller diameter drill bit as a pilot and then drilling to final size for the rivet only after the two pieces are mated together. The pieces being held together via cleco fasteners. The function of the cleco is to temporarily hold material in the exact position during the manufacturing process.

              Two five inches holes are cut at both top and bottom on the box to install the plenums. The intake and the exhaust pipes for the two solar air heaters are manufactured from a single piece of five inch HVAC plenum. These are inserted and secured into the holes using construction adhesive.

              The back of the box is insulated using two sheets of half inch foam sheet. One sheet of half inch foam is installed on the sides. A pneumatic air file is used to cut the sheets.

              We install a snap action thermostat in the interior of the exhaust manifold, constantly monitoring the temperature of the air being brought into the dwelling. The intake and exhaust manifolds need to ensure that all air travel through the interior of the cans therefore it is important to have a good seal to each can. This also means that the manifold itself needs to seal well against the interior of the heat box.

              Nine holes are cut on a two sheets of half inch plywood to make the intake and the exhaust manifolds. These manifolds are secured in place against the cans using PL construction adhesives.

              The solar air tubes are held tight inside the box using two 1/16th half inch 6063 aluminum extrudes. These lightly applying pressure on the cans holding them firmly against the back of the heat chamber.

              Three separate coats of high heat black rest-o-leum paint are applied to the box , all within 60 minutes of each other.

              Clear silicon adhesive will be the primary method of adhering the Plexiglas to the solar air heater. After precisely positioning the glass on top of the heat chamber, I used a 1/8 inch pilot drill to go through the plexiglass. One full tube of silicone is used around the perimeter prior to laying the glass down.

              We install 2 16 Watt Sailflo Duct Exhaust fans with a capacity of moving 141 CFM (Cubic Feet per Minute) for air . These are powered by a small solar panel. One blowing air into the chamber and one sucking air out. This helps to overcome the additional internal airflow resistance built into the design.

              The completed solar air collector is installed outside facing south to maximize the exposure to the sun. Once the solar air collector is installed outside , we take the temperature rise between the incoming and outgoing air while moving 141 cubic feet of air per minute from the fans . The calculate the amount of heat transfer we multiply the CFM and Temperature rise with a factor of 1.08.

                Water is one of the most important resources you can have and to get
                water to the highest point in your property, so that you can store it and water your gardens and your animals and your orchards is incredibly valuable.

                This project goes over the build a water pump that can pump water uphill with no other external source of power except for the water flowing into it. If you have got a piece of land with an abundant source of water like a pond or a creek, a ram pump lets you get that water to a tank or a location at a higher elevation without using no electricity or fuel.

                A ram pump is essentially two one way check valves, one called the waste valve and the other called the delivery valve. To get it started, you just momentarily open the waste valve to allow water to flow. After that it’s working on its own to pump the water uphill above the elevation of the source.

                The ramp pump works by the principle of water hammer. As the waste valve opens, water flows into the pump and immediately out the valve. But as it picks up speed, the flowing water eventually forces the waste valve to slam shut. Now the water is stopped in the pump, it had kinetic energy, but now it doesn’t. That means that kinetic energy was converted into pressure.

                Slamming a valve shut converts all the kinetic energy nearly instantly, creating a huge spike in pressure which opens the second check valve and forces water entering the pump into the delivery line. An pressure tank is included in the pump to smooth out those sharp spikes and pressure and provide a more even flow rate out of the delivery pipe, reducing wear and tear on the pump components.

                Here we use a PVC cylinder as the pressure tank. As the delivery pipe is opened, it will allow a constant flow of water as the pressure builds. If you open the valve too quick, this will hold a certain amount of pressure in it so that the pump doesn’t stop due to pressure loss.

                To get the water to the pump somehow from your source, you need to have a tube or pipe. This pipe is a called a drive pipe. This need to have head pressure or drop in elevation. The drive pipe has same size as the waste valve. The more rigid the material, the more efficient your pump will be. You can use steel or PVC pipe or flex tube. To get the water to our desired destination, we are going to have to have something called a delivery pipe. Here we are using garden hose as the delivery pipe.

                Here are the steps to assemble a one and quarter inch hydraulic ram pump. The parts you need to build this pump are :

                Six one quarter close pipe nipples –
                This allows the components to be screwed close together and not have any extra gap between.

                Two three quarter pipe nipples
                2 One and a quarter ball valves
                3 quarter threaded union
                2 One and a quarter PVC union

                2 threaded PVC tees – threaded on all 3 sides
                A threaded spring check valve –
                This has a spring on the inside. That allows water to flow through one direction and not the other.
                A bushing that goes from one and a quarter down to three quarter.
                A brass or stainless steel swing check valve –
                This is threaded on both ends. And inside there is a little lever that closes on a swing motion.
                Teflon pipe tape to make sure things are tightened up and couple of wrenches.

                The first step in the pump assembly is to take the Teflon tape and put it around these one inch and three quarter pipe nipples. This is done in a clockwise position such that whenever it is time to actually screw components onto this, we want to make sure that they do not unscrew or remove the Teflon tape. This pipe tape will allow the components to screwed together in a more fluid manner. And it helps to create a better seal in the components.

                Next step is take your one and a quarter ball valve and a pipe nipple and thread that together.

                Take the one and a quarter union and connect it to the other end of the taped nipples.

                Connect a tee to this unit with the help of another pipe nipple.

                Next is attaching a spring check valve to this unit. You need to make sure that the flow is pointing away from the components we just put together. There’s an arrow on these that distinguishes the flow direction.

                Connect another PVC tee to the valve through a nipple. A threaded bushing is going to go on the end of that second tee.

                On that three quarter bushing, we are going to put one of the three quarter pipe nipples. From that pipe nipple, we are going to put the other three quarter inch union.

                A three quarter ball valve is connected to this end through another pipe nipple.

                We connect the swing brass/stainless steel check valve to the first PVC tee with the help of another pipe nipple. When connecting the check valve, make sure that the door or flapper is going to fall open from gravity. So it is going to screw on to this pipe nipple with the door hanging open.

                The second PVC tee is connected to the pressure tank with another pipe nipple. Make sure that both tees are facing in the same direction.

                To build the pressure tank for the one and a quarter pump, you need a four inch PVC schedule 40 pipe , four inch coupling, four inch socket to one and a quarter threaded bushing , a four inch cap , bicycle inner tube.

                Take your angle grinder and cut a 17 inch long pipe from the four inch PVC schedule 40 pipe .Once the pipe section is cut, it’s time to assemble the pressure tank.

                Coat the inside of the coupling with a PVC cement and stick our 17 inch pipe inside .Make sure it is real snug in there . The other side of the coupling is connected to the threaded bushing.

                Next step is to insert the bike inner tube into the pressure tank .Grab it from the underside and pull it enough that we can attach my pump to it.

                Start filling the tube with the bicycle pump. Pump until the whole tube seems tight. Put the cap back on the top and seal them tight using pvc cement.

                The last step is to attach your pressure tank onto this threaded nipple that is connected the second PVC tee on the pump.

                Next step is installing the ram pump near the water source .This one and quarter inch pump requires around eight gallons per minute to operate. The amount of water that you get at the top is increased as the pump size goes up.

                So to start the pump, first you need to close the ball valve for the delivery pipe and make sure the ball valve for the drive pipe is opened.
                You need to just push the waste valve down until all the air inside the drive pipe is out. Water comes down this drive pipe and slams against the check valve to shut it down . It creates a pressure wave that gets shot back up the drive pipe .If the pressure wave finds an air pocket ,then the pump will stop.

                Start priming the pump by opening the valve manually couple of times until the pump starts to work on its own. After the pump has been running for a minute or two, you’re gonna open up your delivery pipe valve out because the pressure tank now has enough pressure in it to push water uphill.

                  This project goes into the build a simple survival water distillation system to turn your salt water into drinkable fresh water. This setup can be made with little more than two glass bottles, some metal trays and some sand. So the primary components of this setup are two glass bottles, the wider the bottles are in diameter ,the better and a pair of metal trays.

                  The first part of this process will be to prepare an area such that the two bottles can rest mouth to mouth. The important part is that one of them needs to be suspended over a heat source. This could be done over an open campfire, you just need to find a way to suspend the bottle above the flame either using rocks or logs.

                  Cut a small notch on one side of the pan so that the neck of the bottles can sit a little lower in the pan. This is by no means necessary, but it will make the setup a little more secure. With the trays secured in place, both of them are now filled with sand. The sand will allow the trays to more efficiently act as heat sinks, one tray to cool one of the bottles and the other tray will be used to very evenly heat the other bottle so that it doesn’t shatter from being heated too much on one side.

                  The bottle is pressed firmly into the sand so that it gets good thermal contact and will be heated evenly. The second bottle is adjusted such that its mouth will meet up with the first and it is also pressed into the sand to obtain good thermal contact. Another reason that I’m using sand for this is because it makes it very easy to adjust the bottles angles and it is best to make the bottles meet up as evenly as possible so that there is not much room for water vapor to escape.

                  We want it all to make it into this second bottle where it can condense as freshwater. As an additional measure to keep the cold half of the bottle cold, we wet the sand on this bottle with water or cover them with a wet cloth to allow evaporative cooling to take place.

                  With such a large quantity of sand in this tray it does take a little while for it to reach the boiling point and get this process started. But once the sand has reached that point, it stays hot for a long time. So it is a pretty quick process as the water boils dry in this first bottle to simply refill it and you can continue on with the distillation process as long as you want.

                  Rotate the bottle so that the top portion becomes hot from the steam, it is rotated into the cold sand below. And in that way the entire bottle maintains a cold temperature which causes the distillation to go much faster.

                    This project goes over the build of a convertible waste oil powered aluminum foundry / forge made out of recycled materials. Waste oil burning does get more than hot enough to melt down aluminum, which has a melting point of about 660.3 degree celsius.

                    The materials you need for this project are old 10 gallon propane tank for the foundry, air compressor tank for the waste oil burner, blower from a car , three eighth inch hose and a brake line for feeding waste oil from a bucket, 12V marine battery for powering the blower.

                    We take a car heater blower and house them inside an old tin can for the air intake. This is soldered to soup can and one and quarter inch schedule 80 pipe .This feeds air into the burner vessel.

                    The fuel source which is the waste oil is drip fed from a five gallon jug with a brass gate valve. It is connected to the blower pipe through a three eighth inch hose and a metal brake line.

                    The waste oil burner is from an old air compressor tank .It has a two inch cap on the top where we start the ignition and light the system. The pipe from the blower goes half an inch into the burner at an angle. This generates a cyclone vortex effect . We want to make sure that the oil and air are very well mixed together. In order to sustain combustion on something that’s so difficult to ignite like waste oil, we have to have a source of heat so it can actually atomize, turn into a vapor where it will burn very easily and very effectively.

                    The outlet from the burner is connected to the foundry propane tank through a three inch piece of axle welded with a rotating coupling piece. This can be rotated independently so that the foundry can be rotated to a forge mode with the help of a lever.

                    We mark and cut the top of the propane tank that essentially forms the body of our foundry. Next, we are going to need to put a lining on the inside , probably about two and a quarter inches thick. This acts as an insulator. Here we use a 50% mix of plaster of paris and play sand. The propane tank is filled with the mix and the air compressor is submerged in the center to form a mould. We let the tank sit for 24 hours to cure before we remove the air compressor out of it.

                    Next step is to create the hole into the side of tank that will be the outlet of our waste oil burner. The hole is cut at a height so that the the aluminum wont run down and back flow into the oil burner tank. We place a three inch axle through the hole that is welded to rotating coupling . This coupling attaches to the outlet of the oil burner.

                    One the other side of the propane tank ,we add a small lever system with a latch to manually put the foundry into a forge mode.
                    A one inch water pipe is connected to the tank .Inside of that one inch water pipe is this bit of one inch shaft with a hole drilled in to accept a three eighths inch bolt. A rebar with a latch mechanism is welded vertically to this pipe. The latch is pulled to pulled and the foundry is rotated into forge mode.

                    The foundry sits on a cradle during the forge mode .The cradle is made out of two inch flat bar. The frame is constructed from one and a half inch by one and a half inch angle iron that I had laying around.

                    To start the system , we use a little piece of rag cloth and poke it down into the inlet of the ignition port of the oil burner. We apply a little waste motor oil and start the ignition. Once the flame begins , we apply power to our blower motor by connecting it to the 12V battery.

                      This project goes over the build of a Homemade 19 Plate HHO Dry Cell Generator . The HHO generator works by the principle of electrolysis. Water is made from two types of atoms hydrogen and oxygen. Electrolysis is a method for splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen. Pure water isn’t electrically conductive, so we add either sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide to it to make it conductive.

                      To make the electrolyzer , we need electrode plates, neutral plates, gaskets, front and back plates with some metal reinforcements . The electrode plates and the neutral plates are made of 304 stainless steel sheets, the gaskets made from one eighth inch neoprene rubber sheet. The neutral plates are stacked in between the positive and the negative plates .The empty spaces are filled with neoprene gaskets. Water comes into the electrolyzer through the input tube and goes out as hydrogen and oxygen through the output tube.

                      When electricity is applied to the electrodes, the chemical reaction occurs, which causes the hydrogen from the water to go to one plate and the oxygen to the other plate where there they form bubbles of gas .Now the electricity wants to jump from the negative plate to the positive plate but since we have neutral plates between them, they divide the original voltage. This help in efficient HHO gas generation.

                      The plates are made of 12 X 12 .24ga 304 stainless steel sheets that is cut into four 6 inch pieces using tin snips . The plates are stacked together and holes are cut top and bottom for where the gas and the water comes in and leaves. To hold the plates together use seven inch cutting boards with metal support frames at both ends.

                      To differentiate between neutral plates and the electrode plates, we cut both corners of the neutral plates and only one corner of the electrode plates. So this way we can run a bolt from the positive to the other positive and negative to other negative end.

                      To assemble the cell, we place onto the base cutting board, the positive electrode plate and stack the neutral plates and the gaskets on them one by one and enclose them the negative electrode plate and the base board .Secure them with bolts on four corners. The electrode plates are then connected to each other with a thin gauge wire.

                      The next component for the build is some sort of a water reservoir. The reservoir is nothing more than a bottle that’s going to hold your electrolyte, which is distilled water and either sodium hydroxide.

                      The water reservoir is connected to the cell using two three eighth inch tubes, one going into the cell and other coming out . The other component that you’re going to need to build this HHO generator is some kind of a power supply that can generate 12V 30amps . This can be a car battery hooked up to a trickle charger, an old computer UPS supply or a 12V battery used for solar panels. The electrode cells are then secured on a wooden frame along with the power supply and the water bottle reservoir for easy portability.

                      Next you need a bubbler .This takes the HHO gas coming into it and diffuses them and gets broken into smaller bubbles. As those bubbles travel up the column of water inside the bubbler, it helps to filter out the sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide vapors .If your bubbler is set up correctly, then after being diffused and traveling up that column of water, it tends to get rid of most if not all those vapors.

                      To add a safety feature ,we drill the top of the bottle , remove the lid and cover it up with a plastic foil pressure membrane . If the pressure inside the bubbler increases in case of a flashback ,instead of the jar exploding, the pressure is able to escape through the membrane .

                      This project goes over the build of a simple Bandsaw from old car wheels .Car wheels are big and heavy, but in many ways,...