If you’re going to run your home ,cabin or garage off grid, you are going to need some way of having power. Enter Solar and Wind. This project goes over the build of a complete off grid power generation system that can harness the clean and green renewable energy of the sun and the wind.
Here is the basic rundown of the system .We go from sun to solar panels, there is no limit on how many solar panels we can put. It goes into a charge controller, it helps the solar panels create really efficient electricity to be pumped into your battery bank. Charge controller also makes sure that the batteries are being charged correctly and stay optimum. So solar panels to charge controller, and then that goes directly to your battery bank.
The other source of renewable power is wind. The wind turbine is connected to a stop switch that goes into your battery bank. In some cases in between you can put up a wind turbine charge controller.
Next step is converting the DC power to AC power with an inverter. The inverter basically converts the power to make it usable for your home. The inverter also has to be sized appropriately. From inverter to breaker panel which spreads the the power out throughout your house through your light switches, wall sockets. From breaker panel straight to your house or cabin.
The first step is sizing your system. The battery voltage is going to determine what type of equipment you are going to be buying, and how you are going to be wiring your battery bank. So if you go with a 12 volt system, then you are going to want to make sure that your solar panels are wired up correctly for 12 volt. Even when you go with a wind turbine, you are going to want to make sure you buy the correct wind turbine for your battery voltage .So everything has to be sized appropriately so that you can collect as much energies as efficiently and then you can draw that power out.
The golf cart batteries in my system are of 6 Volts. I have 6 of them wired in parallel, and in series to give me a 12 volt battery bank. The control panel box consists of my charge controller, voltmeter and 2 ammeters for both reading both solar and wind power amps.
Four 12V Solar panels , each 100 watts are wired together . All the positives are connected to each other and all the negatives are connected to each other. The wiring goes straight into the control panel.
The wind turbine used here is also 12V.The 3 Phase connections from the turbine goes into the bridge rectifier. The negative connection from the rectifier goes straight to the batteries, the positive goes to a junction box that connects the turbine and the inline fuse and 50amp breaker. The negative of the inverter goes into the negative of the batteries ,positive to positive. The romex wire from the inverter goes into the breaker panel in the house.
The Permanent Motor Alternator turbine stands on a 6 foot pole .We have these two steel pipes that go down into the ground, three feet. There’s another piece of steel that runs across here that’s welded together, and it’s in the bottom, and then we poured concrete over it to anchor it. Three tie down points are connected to the turbine to keep the pole steady from rocking around especially in high winds. So that way, when the blades turn, the bearings don’t get worn out prematurely from wobbling. The Permanent Motor Alternator (PMA) used in this turbine consists of 2 shell casing, two bearings, a rotor inside and a stainless steel shaft.
The tail of the turbine is made from a sheet metal cut to look like a fin.It is attached to a steel pole.This is further connected to the PMA alternator.
The 11 blades of the turbine is attached to a hub and a pulley through a steel shaft. The belt is connected to a secondary pulley which is connected to the Permanent magnet alternator. The wire from the PMA is connected through MC4 connectors to the control panel.
Wind turbine and solar power system overview :
Setup of the wind turbines :
- How to build a Homemade Multi Use Water Purifier that uses no electricity .Works as Water heater and stove burner too….This project goes into the build of a simple and cheap two stage DIY water filter.Also doubles as a stove burner. The materials needed for this build are some bricks,bottles,copper coil,activated carbon,sand,gravel I got the sand and activated carbon water filtration part on the far left. In the middle, I've got it heated in a copper coil running on isopropyl alchohol. The purified water is coming out on the right side. The first step is to make the 1st stage filter. We take a 2L bottle cut in half, drilled a quarter inch hole on the bottom and drop in a couple of cotton balls and pack it in there. Next step is to add the activated carbon,sand and gravel.Rinse all of them before adding . Align the bricks and place the cans on top. Place a small tin with the isopropyl alcohol inside the middle can. A copper coil is inserted into the middle can and connect between the first can and the water bottle. Add the sand mixture filter bottle on top of the first can below the copper pipe. For the first can the one that holds the activated carbon filter,just remove the label and drill one small hole at the bottom. Then for the second cam that holds the copper coil, you cut down the top, take about a third of circumference off and cut about two thirds of the way down. Then put one small notch on the top and a hole down below for the coil. To make the copper coil just wrap it around from top to bottom in a smallcan, push the can out and leave about a foot on either side. Notice I added a couple of bricks and pointed the end of the copper tubing down directly into the can so we won't lose hardly any water and make sure to drill those steam vents so the pressure doesn't build up. Make sure to drill vents on the bottle so that the pressure doesn't get build up. Pour the alcohol under the coil and fire it up. Just put a little in ,you don't need too much. A full glass of water gets purified in three to three and a half minutes. This gravity fed two stage water filter should take care of pond water stream water swamp water, just about any water you can think of. Don't try using this without the heavy sand gravel and activated carbon in there or the water will backflow and it may spray out. An easy way to store this filter when you're not using it is just save the bottom half of the two liter bottle you cut in half and drop the filter in it ,holds it perfectly. This cheap 2 stage heated oil water purifier can also be used to both purify water and cook at the same time.
- How to build a Homemade Water Powered HHO Dry Cell GeneratorThis project goes over the build of a Homemade 19 Plate HHO Dry Cell Generator . The HHO generator works by the principle of electrolysis. Water is made from two types of atoms hydrogen and oxygen. Electrolysis is a method for splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen. Pure water isn't electrically conductive, so we add either sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide to it to make it conductive. To make the electrolyzer , we need electrode plates, neutral plates, gaskets, front and back plates with some metal reinforcements . The electrode plates and the neutral plates are made of 304 stainless steel sheets, the gaskets made from one eighth inch neoprene rubber sheet. The neutral plates are stacked in between the positive and the negative plates .The empty spaces are filled with neoprene gaskets. Water comes into the electrolyzer through the input tube and goes out as hydrogen and oxygen through the output tube. When electricity is applied to the electrodes, the chemical reaction occurs, which causes the hydrogen from the water to go to one plate and the oxygen to the other plate where there they form bubbles of gas .Now the electricity wants to jump from the negative plate to the positive plate but since we have neutral plates between them, they divide the original voltage. This help in efficient HHO gas generation. The plates are made of 12 X 12 .24ga 304 stainless steel sheets that is cut into four 6 inch pieces using tin snips . The plates are stacked together and holes are cut top and bottom for where the gas and the water comes in and leaves. To hold the plates together use seven inch cutting boards with metal support frames at both ends. To differentiate between neutral plates and the electrode plates, we cut both corners of the neutral plates and only one corner of the electrode plates. So this way we can run a bolt from the positive to the other positive and negative to other negative end. To assemble the cell, we place onto the base cutting board, the positive electrode plate and stack the neutral plates and the gaskets on them one by one and enclose them the negative electrode plate and the base board .Secure them with bolts on four corners. The electrode plates are then connected to each other with a thin gauge wire. The next component for the build is some sort of a water reservoir. The reservoir is nothing more than a bottle that's going to hold your electrolyte, which is distilled water and either sodium hydroxide. The water reservoir is connected to the cell using two three eighth inch tubes, one going into the cell and other coming out . The other component that you're going to need to build this HHO generator is some kind of a power supply that can generate 12V 30amps . This can be a car battery hooked up to a trickle charger, an old computer UPS supply or a 12V battery used for solar panels. The electrode cells are then secured on a wooden frame along with the power supply and the water bottle reservoir for easy portability. Next you need a bubbler .This takes the HHO gas coming into it and diffuses them and gets broken into smaller bubbles. As those bubbles travel up the column of water inside the bubbler, it helps to filter out the sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide vapors .If your bubbler is set up correctly, then after being diffused and traveling up that column of water, it tends to get rid of most if not all those vapors. To add a safety feature ,we drill the top of the bottle , remove the lid and cover it up with a plastic foil pressure membrane . If the pressure inside the bubbler increases in case of a flashback ,instead of the jar exploding, the pressure is able to escape through the membrane . https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ILzMhqEFMeI
- How to build a Multi Use Simple Homemade Wood Gas System from Scrap Materials that can be used as a Generator,Cooking Stove and LanternThis project goes over the build of a simple gasification system that functions to produce wood gas for running a generator, a cooking stove and for lanterns. We feed the wood chips and other materials through the opening at the top of the gasifier ,the air also gets drawn in from the top .The air would drop through the wood mass, down to the reduction zone and gets collected down at the bottom of the tank through the output pipe . The materials needed to build this down draft style gasifier are a 3 old propane tanks, old steel sheets, wood pellets. The first step is to make sure that propane tanks are empty .Remove the handles from the top of the 3 propane tanks and unthread the valves. Cut the top portion from 2 tanks and stack the body of the tanks on top of each other and weld it. One of the cut out top pieces can be used a lid . The bottom portion of the lower tank is cut open to create the reduction zone of the gasifier. To make the reduction point, we take the scrap steel sheet and make a five inch wide small tube of the them and weld them to the bottom third propane tank . The bottom five gallon propane tank is used as a ash bin where all the ash is going to get caught and as an outlet for all the gases coming out of the system. The top portion of this tank is cut in such a way that it fits the reduction zone collar of the secondary tank. Make sure that both the tanks fits nicely together so that you can pull the inner chamber out of the bottom ash tank to remove it, dump the ash catch out and use it again and again. The top of the upper tank is cut open .This acts as the feed area where all the wood pieces are dropped in. We make a screen with holes using a 20mm hole saw cutter from the leftover cutouts of the propane tank. We are gonna mount this screen inside the gasifier lower reduction zone. A hinge and a wire is attached to the screen so it can open and close. This gives us the ability so we can shake the screen if it plugs up with ash or other materials. The wire goes through the reactor up to the top . We have a pressure relief system installed on the lid of the gasifier. If anything were to happen inside of the gasifier , the build up pressure can be made to escape through the top lid .This is done by hooking up two springs on both sides of the lid through small loops .The springs on both sides is attached to hand levers. We drill 8 half inch diameter holes just above reduction zone area and put thick steel tubing through them to the center of the chamber. The airflow will go in and be drawn down through the center of the reduction zone that helps in efficient burn. The pipes are curved in to the chamber so that it does not interfere with any wood mass as it goes into the reduction zone. We add plugs along these 8 tubes to regulate the air flow into the system. Next step is to add the draw fan to the gasifier. Here we use a pellet stove fan .We add a 2 inch plate over the face of the fan and a threaded pipe to seal any air going into the gasifier. We start up the gasifier by putting some chopped wood through the top and use the fan to get the wood gas producing out of the bottom outlet pipe. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h9vuphZe8iU